Tropical Diseases – ELISA

ZIKA Virus IgG – ELISA

INTRODUCTION The Zika virus belongs to Flaviviridae and the genus Flavivirus, and is thus related to the dengue, yellow fever, Japanese encephalitis, and West Nile viruses. Like other flaviviruses, Zika virus is enveloped and icosahedral and has a nonsegmented, single-stranded, positive-sense RNA genome. The RNA genome genes encode for nonstructural proteins and structural proteins, whose most immunogenic ones are NS1 and ENV antigens. The structural proteins encapsulate the virus. There are two lineages of the Zika virus: the African lineage, and the Asian lineage. Phylogenetic studies indicate that the virus spreading in the Americas is most closely related to the Asian strain, which circulated in French Polynesia during the 2013 outbreak. The Zika virus is transmitted by daytime-active mosquitoes as its vector. It is primarily transmitted by the female Aedes aegypti in order to lay eggs, but has been isolated from a number of arboreal mosquito species in the Aedes genus, with an extrinsic incubation period in mosquitoes of about 10 days. Since 2015, news reports have drawn attention to the spread of Zika in Latin America and the Caribbean. In 2015, Zika virus RNA was detected in the amniotic fluid of two pregnant women whose fetuses had microcephaly, indicating that the virus had crossed the placenta and could have caused a mother-to-child infection. According to the WHO on 5 February 2016, a causal link between the Zika virus and microcephaly was "strongly suspected but not yet scientifically proven" and "Although the microcephaly cases in Brazil are spatio-temporally associated with the Zika outbreak, more robust investigations and research is needed to better understand this potential link." The new recommendations include offering serologic testing to pregnant women without Zika fever symptoms who have returned from areas with ongoing Zika virus transmission in the last 2–12 weeks; and for pregnant women without Zika symptoms living in such areas, they recommend testing at the beginning of prenatal care and follow-up testing in the fifth month of pregnancy.   GENERAL INFORMATION ZIKA, Dengue, Chikungunya & West Nile viruses - transmitted by the “Tiger” Mosquito – has become the biggest new viral challenge across the Globe in recent years. These diseases experienced unprecedented expansion from limited endemic areas to all around the world, especially in the Americas due to the tropical climate, the presence of the  mosquito vector, intensive human migration and increasing worldwide tourism. ZIKA Virus - a flavivirus that is often misdiagnosed as Dengue or Chikungunya.  The illnesses caused by these diseases have very similar/overlapping clinical presentation with prominent fever, headache, rash, muscle & joint aches.   The great concern about ZIKA has been the possible association with severe neurological disorders in fetuses of women infected while pregnant. There has been a marked increase in cases of microcephaly in the areas of the ZIKAinfection occurrence. There are no vaccines for any of these illnesses, ZIKA included. Thus, accurate and timely Diagnostics allows the patient to have the fastest supportive care and prevents wider spreading of the diseases.  ZIKA virus testing in the prenatal field has become of utmost importance. DIA.PRO provides the full range of ELISA immunoassays for ZIKA virus, Dengue, Chikungunya and West Nile virus Diagnostics: Diagnostic kits for the ZIKA Virus:  ZIKVG.CE - ELISA assay for determination of ZIKA virus IgG   

ZIKA Virus IgM – ELISA

INTRODUCTION The Zika virus belongs to Flaviviridae and the genus Flavivirus, and is thus related to the dengue, yellow fever, Japanese encephalitis, and West Nile viruses. Like other flaviviruses, Zika virus is enveloped and icosahedral and has a nonsegmented, single-stranded, positive-sense RNA genome. The RNA genome genes encode for nonstructural proteins and structural proteins, whose most immunogenic ones are NS1 and ENV antigens. The structural proteins encapsulate the virus. There are two lineages of the Zika virus: the African lineage, and the Asian lineage. Phylogenetic studies indicate that the virus spreading in the Americas is most closely related to the Asian strain, which circulated in French Polynesia during the 2013 outbreak. The Zika virus is transmitted by daytime-active mosquitoes as its vector. It is primarily transmitted by the female Aedes aegypti in order to lay eggs, but has been isolated from a number of arboreal mosquito species in the Aedes genus, with an extrinsic incubation period in mosquitoes of about 10 days. Since 2015, news reports have drawn attention to the spread of Zika in Latin America and the Caribbean. In 2015, Zika virus RNA was detected in the amniotic fluid of two pregnant women whose fetuses had microcephaly, indicating that the virus had crossed the placenta and could have caused a mother-to-child infection. According to the WHO on 5 February 2016, a causal link between the Zika virus and microcephaly was "strongly suspected but not yet scientifically proven" and "Although the microcephaly cases in Brazil are spatio-temporally associated with the Zika outbreak, more robust investigations and research is needed to better understand this potential link." The new recommendations include offering serologic testing to pregnant women without Zika fever symptoms who have returned from areas with ongoing Zika virus transmission in the last 2–12 weeks; and for pregnant women without Zika symptoms living in such areas, they recommend testing at the beginning of prenatal care and follow-up testing in the fifth month of pregnancy.   GENERAL INFORMATION  ZIKA, Dengue, Chikungunya & West Nile viruses - transmitted by the “Tiger” Mosquito – has become the biggest new viral challenge across the Globe in recent years. These diseases experienced unprecedented expansion from limited endemic areas to all around the world, especially in the Americas due to the tropical climate, the presence of the  mosquito vector, intensive human migration and increasing worldwide tourism. Zika Virus - a flavivirus that is often misdiagnosed as dengue or chikungunya. The illnesses caused by these diseases have very similar/overlapping clinical presentation with prominent fever, headache, rash, muscle & joint aches.  The great concern about ZIKA has been the possible association with severe neurological disorders in fetuses of women infected while pregnant. There has been a marked increase in cases of microcephaly in the areas of the ZIKA infection occurrence. There are no vaccines for any of these illnesses, ZIKA included. Thus, accurate and timely Diagnostics allows the patient to have the fastest supportive care and prevents wider spreading of the diseases.  ZIKA virus testing in the prenatal field has become of utmost importance. DIA.PRO provides the full range of ELISA immunoassays for ZIKA virus, Dengue, Chikungunya and West Nile virus Diagnostics: Diagnostic kits for the ZIKA Virus: ZIKVM.CE -  ELISA assay for determination of ZIKA virus IgM

Dengue virus IgM – ELISA

Enzyme ImmunoAssay (ELISA) for the qualitative determination of IgM antibodies to Dengue Virus in human plasma and sera. Micro-plates are coated with higly purified Dengue Virus antigen.In the 1st incubation, the solid phase is treated with diluted samples and anti Dengue Virus IgM are captured, if present, by the antigens.After washing out all the other components of the sample, in the 2nd incubation bound anti Dengue Virus IgM are detected by the addition of anti hIgM antibody, labeled with peroxidase (HRP).The enzyme captured on the solid phase, acting on the substrate/chromogen mixture, generates an optical signal that is proportional to the amount of anti Dengue Virus IgM antibodies present in the sample. Neutralization of IgG anti-DV, carried out directly in the well in the 1st incubation, is performed in the assay in order to block interferences due to this class of antibodies in the determination of IgM.

Dengue virus IgG – ELISA

Enzyme ImmunoAssay (ELISA) for the qualitative/semiquantitative determination of IgG antibodies to Dengue virus in human plasma and sera.  The product is intended mostly for the follow-up of Dengue virus infection.The product is supplied for research purpose only.Micro-plates are coated with an highly purified Dengue virus antigen. In the 1st incubation, the solid phase is treated with diluted samples and anti Dengue virus IgG are captured, if present, by the antigens.After washing out all the other components of the sample, in the 2nd incubation bound anti Dengue virus IgG are detected by the addition of anti hIgG antibody, labeled with peroxidase (HRP).The enzyme captured on the solid phase, acting on the substrate/chromogen mixture, generates an optical signal that is proportional to the amount of anti Dengue virus IgG antibodies present in the sample.

West Nile Virus Antibodies – ELISA

Enzyme ImmunoAssay (ELISA) for the qualitative determination  of  antibodies to West Nile Virus in human plasma and sera. The product is intended mostly for  the follow-up of West Nile Virus infection. For “in vitro” diagnostic use only. West Nile Virus is an arbovirus and is transmitted to people through complex life cycles involving birds and mosquitoes. Each infection is most often not trasmitted from person to person. Most peolple who are infected with west Nile Virus will not have any symptoms.

T.cruzi Ab – ELISA

Third generation Enzyme Immuno Assay (ELISA) for the   determination  of   antibodies to Tripanosoma cruzi (Tc) in human plasma and sera. The kit may be used for the screening of blood units and the follow-up of Tc-infected patients. For “in vitro” diagnostic use only. Tripanosomes are flagellar protozoa known to infect humans and cause the Chaga’s disease (T.cruzi) and the Sleeping Sickness (T.brucei). Chaga’s disease is mainly spread in south America countries but is known to be present also in south USA and some African regions.

Malaria Ab – ELISA

Enzyme Immunoassay (ELISA) for the determination of antibodies to Plasmodium species in human sera and plasma. The kit is intended for the screening of blood units and the identification of people that came into contact with the protozoa and developed an immunological response. The kit is for in vitro diagnostic use only and the test has to be carried out by professional people, opportunely trained.Plasmodium species are obligate intracellular protozoa related to Babesia and Toxoplasma. Plasmodium species reproduce sexually in mosquitoes; mosquitoes transmit the resulting sporozoites into humans where the organisms reproduce asexually.